Thursday, May 31, 2012

Behavior Therapy

Behavior Therapy

B.F. Skinner




Albert Bandura




Arnold A. Lazarus

(b. 1932)




  • To eliminate maladaptive behaviors & learn more effective behaviors.

  • To identify factors that influence behavior & find out what can be done about problematic behavior.

  • To encourage clients to take an active & collaborative role in clearly setting treatment goals & evaluating how well these goals are being met.



    Key Concepts:

    • Focus is on overt behavior, precision in specifying goals of treatment, development of specific treatment plans, & objective evaluation of therapy outcomes.

    • Present behavior is given attention.

    • Therapy is based on the principles of learning theory.

    • Normal behavior is learned through reinforcement & imitation.

    • Abnormal behavior is the result of faulty learning.  



    • Theories:

      • Behavior is the product of learning. People are both the product & the producer of the environment.

      • Traditional behavior therapy is based on classical & operant principles.

      • Contemporary behavior therapy has branched out into many directions. For example, Cognitive Behavior Therapy is a popular theoretical orientation among psychologists. 




      • Other Techniques:

        • Reinforcement

        • Shaping

        • Modeling

        • Systematic Desensitization

        • Relaxation Methods

        • Flooding

        • Eye Movement

        • Desensitization Reprocessing

        • Cognitive Restructuring

        • Assertion & Social Skills Training

        • Self-Management Programs

        • Mindfulness & Acceptance Methods

        • Behavioral Rehearsal 

        • Coaching

        • Various Multimodal Therapy Techniques

        • Diagnosis determine a treatment plan.

        • Questions include: what, how or when (not why).

        • Homework assignments


      Bobo Doll Experiment 





    •  Corey, G. (2013)..Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy (9th ed.,). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

    • Google Images

    • YouTube

Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt Therapy


Fritz Perls 


Laura Posner Perls



  • To assist clients in gaining awareness of moment-to-moment experiencing. 

  • To expand the capacity to make choices.

  • To foster integration of the self. 



    Key Concepts:

    • The emphasis is on the "what" and "how" of experiencing in the here & now in order to help the clients accept all aspects of themselves.

    • Holism- (German)  Whole / completion

    • Figure-formation process - How the individual organizes experience from moment-to-moment.

    • Unfinished business - When figures emerge from the background but are not completed and resolved, individuals are left with unfinished business, which can be manifested in unexpressed feelings such as hate, anger, etc.

    •  Avoidance, Awareness, Contact, & Energy 


      • A person strives for wholeness & integration of thinking, feeling, & behaving.

      • Contact with self and others, contact boundaries, & awareness.

      • Having the capacity to recognize how earlier influences are related to present difficulties.

      • Client is grounded in the here and now & emphasizes awareness, personal choice, & responsibility. 





      Other Techniques:

      1. Experiments/exercises for clients

      2. The role of confrontation

      3. Interventions

      4. Empty chair technique (address the invisible person)

      5. Making the rounds (approach the group individually)

      6. The reversal exercise (become your opposite)

      7. The rehearsal exercise  (plan dialogue ahead)

      8. The exaggeration exercise (body language)

      9. Staying with the feeling ( go deeper on topic)

      10. Dream works (bring them to life)






        •  Corey, G. (2013)..Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy (9th ed.,). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

        • Google Images

        • YouTube


Monday, May 21, 2012



Carl Rogers 

(1902 - 1987)

Natalie Rogers - Expressive Arts

Virginia Axline- Play Therapy

Eugene Gendlin - Focusing Techniques



  • To provide a safe climate for clients' self-exploration and that they recognize blocks to growth & experience aspects of self that were formerly denied or distorted.

  • To enable a client to move toward openness, greater trust in self, willingness to be a process, & increased spontaneity and aliveness.

  • To find meaning in life & to experience life fully.

  • To become more self directed.



    Key Concepts:

    •  Client is able to become aware of problems and has means to solve them.

    • Self-direction = Faith is placed in the client's capacity.

    • Mental health is a congruence (realness)of ideal self  real self.

    • Maladjustment is the result of discrepancy of who one is & who they want to be.

    • Focus on the present & express feelings.




    • Developed during the 1940's as a non-directive reaction against psychoanalysis.

    • Based on a subjective view of human experience, how one places faith, & gives responsibility to the client dealing with personal issues.

    • Therapeutic core conditions. 

    • Person-Centered approach. 

Other Techniques:

Early Emphasis on Reflection of Feelings

Evolution of Person-Centered Methods

Application to Group Counseling

Principles of Expressive Arts Therapy

Motivational Interviewing




  • Corey, G. (2013)..Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy (9th ed.,). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

  • Google Images

  • YouTube


Sunday, May 20, 2012


Viktor Frank

(1905 - 1997)


Rollo May

(1909 - 1994)


Irvin Yalom

( 1931 -   )



  • To help people see that they are free.

  • To become aware of their possibilities;

  • To challenge them to know they are responsible for events that they formerly thought were happening to them.

  • To identify the factors that block freedom.



Key Concepts:

  • Approach is experiential and counseling rather than a theoretical model.

  • Stresses core human conditions.

  • Interest is on the now and what one is becoming.

  • Contains a future orientation and stresses self-awareness before action.


    1. Capacity for Self-awareness

    2. Freedom and Responsibility

    3. Striving for Identity and Relationships to Others

    4. Search for Meaning

    5. Anxiety as a Condition of Living

    6. Awareness of Death & Non-being

      Other Techniques:

      • Phases of Existential Counseling

      • Clients appropriate for Existential Counseling

      • Application to Brief Therapy

      • Issues addressed are: freedom & responsibility, isolation & relationships, meaning & meaninglessness,  living & dying




     Corey, G. (2013)..Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy (9th ed.,). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

    Google Images



Sunday, May 13, 2012


                                   Alfred Alder ( 1870-1937 )


           Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, & Harry Stack Sullivan



Goals of This Therapy:

  • To challenge client' basic premises & life goals.
  • To offer encouragement so individuals can develop socially useful goals & increase social interest.
  • To develop the client's sense of belonging.     

 Key Concepts:

  • View of Human Nature  (Inferiority feelings)
  • Subjective Perception of Reality  (Phenomenological)
  • Unity & Patterns of Human Personality (Holistic Concept)
  • Social Interest & Community Feeling
  • Birth Order & Sibling Relationships

 Other Techniques:

  • Gathering history data
  • Sharing interpretations with clients
  • Offering encouragement
  • Helping clients find new possibilities



  • Corey, G. (2013)..Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy (9th ed.,). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

  • Google Images

  • The University of South Carolina Newsfilm Library @


                                         Sigmund Freud  ( 1856-1939 )

                Alfred Alder and Carl Jung worked with Sigmund Freud.




The Goals of this Therapy are:

  • To make the unconscious conscious.     
  • To reconstruct the basic personality.
  • To assist clients in reliving earlier experiences & working through repressed conflicts.
  • To achieve intellectual & emotional awareness.

                                                    Key Concepts:

  • Anxiety

  • Consciousness & the Unconscious

  • Development of Personality

  • Ego-Defense Mechanisms 

  • Structure of Personality

  • View of Human Relations  


The Theories of Psychoanalysis are:

Sigmund Freud established the theory of personality, a philosophy of human nature, and a method of psychotherapy that concentrates on all of the unconscious factors that may motivate behavior. He believed that a human's first 6 years of one's life are the determinants of that person's later personality development. 





  • Other Techniques are:

    Dream Analysis

  • Free Association

  • Analysis of resistance



Corey, G. (2013)..Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy (9th ed.,). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Google Images