*Postmodern approaches do not have a single founder.
Insoo Kim Berg - Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT)
(1935 - 2007)
Steve de Shazer - Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT)
(1940 - 2005)
Michael White - Narrative Therapy
(1949 - 2008)
David Epston - Narrative Therapy
To change the way clients view problems & what they do about these concerns.
To collaboratively establish specific, clear, concrete, realistic, & observable goals leading to increased positive change.
To help clients create a self-identity grounded on competence & resourcefulness so they can resolve present future concerns.
To assist clients in viewing their lives in positive ways, rather than being problem saturated.
Therapy tends to be brief & addresses the the present & the future.
The person is not the problem; the problem is the problem.
The emphasis is on externalizing the problem & looking for exceptions to the problem.
Therapy consists of a collaborative dialogue in which the therapist & the client co-create solutions.
By identifying instances when the problem did not exist, clients can create new meanings for themselves & fashion a new life story.
Based on the premise that there are multiple realities & multiple truths, postmodern therapies reject the idea that reality is external & can be grasped.
People create meaning in their lives through conversations with others.
The postmodern approaches avoid pathologizing clients, take a dim view of diagnosis, avoid searching for underlying causes of problems, & place a high value on discovering clients' strengths & resources.
Rather than talking about problems, the focus of therapy is on creating solutions in the present & in the future.
In solution-focused therapy, the main technique is change-talk, with emphasis on times in a client's life when the problem was not a problem.
Creative use of questioning
The miracle question
Formula first session task
Therapist feedback to clients
Application to group counseling
In narrative therapy, specific techniques include listening to a client's problem-saturated story without getting stuck.
Externalizing & naming the problem.
Discovering clues to competence
Questions & more questions
Search for unique outcomes
Alternative stories & reauthoring
Documenting the evidence
*Narrative therapists often write letters to clients & assist them in finding an audience that will support their changes & new stories.Solution-Focused Couples Therapy - Insoo Kim Berg Video Clip
Corey, G. (2013)..Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy (9th ed.,). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.